2. Years and Months
Seasons among the Eldar:
|Quenya name||Sindarin name||Translation||Length|
|quellë (or lasselanta)||firith (or narbeleth)||fading||54 days|
Additional days fell outside of any season. Before tuilë came yestarë, the first day of the year. Between yávië and quellë came three enderi, or "middle-days." Following coirë came mettarë, the last day of the year. This provided a year of 365 days. Every twelfth year the enderi were doubled; at the end of every third yén the doubling of the enderi was omitted.
The Calendar of Númenor in the Second Age differed. Instead of beginning the year with spring, they reckoned from mid-winter. Eventually they added a seventh day to the week, and reckoned days from sunrise to sunrise. They also divided the loa into more regular and shorter periods. This King's Reckoning was used down until the end of the line of kings in Gondor. It may be set out as follows:
Months in the King's Reckoning:
|Quenya name||Sindarin name*||Length||Modern Equivalent|
*used only by the Dúnedain in the North
Additional days outside the months were yestarë (before Narvinyë), loëndë (between Nárië and Cermië), and mettarë (after Ringarë). Every fourth year, except for the last year of a century, loëndë was replaced by two enderi.
The Second Age was held to have ended with the overthrow of Sauron; thus S.A. 3442 became T.A. 1. Accumulated millennial deficits and dislocations caused by the new numeration of the years of the Third Age caused Mardil the Good Steward to issue a new calendar in T.A. 2060. According to this calendar, all months had 30 days, and two more days outside the months were introduced: tuilérë (between Súlimë and Víressë), and yáviérë (between Yavannië and Narquelië). Days outside of the months were always considered to be holidays.
The Shire Calendar began in 1601 of the Third Age, by the King's Reckoning, and thus the T.A. equivalent of any date given in Shire Reckoning may be found by simply adding 1600. For their months and years, the Hobbits followed the King's Reckoning, with a slight modification. Instead of the two middle months having 31 days, the Hobbits counted 30 days in each, and had a three-day holiday between them. They also used unique names for both months and weekdays.
Months in the Shire:
|Name in Gondor||Shire name||Bree name||Modern Equivalent|
A table setting out the Shire Calendar for all years may be found in Appendix D of The Return of the King, p. 384.
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