10. Works Consulted and Appendix
Casimir, Jon. “For the love of…” The Age 1 Nov. 2002. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2002/11/01/1036027033529.html Accessed 31 Jan. 2003.
Cicioni, Mirna. “Male Pair-Bonds and Female Desire in Fan Slash Writing” Theorizing Fandom: Fans, Subculture and Identity. Ed. Cheryl Harris, Alison Alexander. New Jersey: Hampton Press, 1998.
Ellen, Barbara.” Lord & Ladies: Film Women are Flocking to Heroic Epics.” The Times [London] 10 Jan. 2003, Sec. 2, 13 and reader replies, “Women and Tolkien’s epic” The Times 14 Jan. 2003, 36.
Green, Shoshanna, et al. “Normal Female Interest in Men Bonking: Selections from The Terra Nostra Underground and Strange Bedfellows,” Theorizing Fandom: Fans, Subculture and Identity. Ed. Cheryl Harris, Alison Alexander. New Jersey: Hampton Press, 1998.
Hopkins, Lisa “Female Authority Figures in the Works of Tolkien, C.S. Lewis and Charles Williams” Proceedings of the J.R.R. Tolkien Centenary Conference 1992. California: The Mythopoeic Press and The Tolkien Society, 1995.
Jenkins, Henry. “The Poachers and the Stormtroopers” Spring 1998. http://commons.somewhere.com/rre/1998/The.Poachers.and.the.Sto.html Accessed 21 February, 2003.
Mia. “A Cyborg Subculture: Slash Fandom Online” http://www.mrks.org/~mia/fanfic/slash.html June 2000. Accessed 21 February, 2003. I sent an email to the author on 23 February, 2003, and I have yet to receive a response, so the last name of the author is unknown. Her website indicates that she has been on hiatus from that site since January of 2001.
Ringel, Faye. “Women Fantasists: In the Shadow of the Ring,” J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth. Ed. George Clark, Daniel Timmons. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2000.
Radway, Janice A. Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy and Popular Literature. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1982.
Plotz, David. “Luke Skywalker Is Gay?” 14 Apr. 2000. http://slate.msn.com/id/80225 Accessed 21 February, 2003.
Glossary of Terms
AU: Alternate Universe, a story in which the original plotline is changed. Many stories can fall into this category, from anything that deviates at all from Tolkien’s original text to bringing in characters from outside Middle-earth into the stories.
Canon: The actual definition varies from author to author, but essentially this means that the author is referencing the actual words of the original author, in this case, anything written by J.R.R. Tolkien. Within Tolkien fanfiction, this term is commonly used to indicate a difference from writings that are movie-based.
H/C: Hurt/comfort, a type of story in which the main character experiences some kind of physical trauma and is then cared for by another character.
Hetfic: Stories that include a heterosexual pairing of characters, usually used to differentiate itself from slash.
Mary Sue: A story that features a female non-canon character who is the author self-inserted in the story to act out her particular fantasy.
Nuzgûl: A unique Tolkien fanfiction word for “plot-bunny.” A plot-bunny is an idea for a fanfiction story, often put out by an author who isn’t able to focus on that topic but wants somebody else to write on it. A collection of such “bunnies” can be found in a “Nuzgûl hutch,” and within some fandoms authors are encouraged to “adopt a Nuzgûl from the Nuzgûl hutch.” Nuzgûl is from a typographical error spelling of Nazgûl.
OC or OFC: Original Character, or Original Female Character. A new character created by the author to supplement a story.
PWP: Plot, What Plot? Usually in reference to a slash story that focuses on the sexual interplay of the characters, with plot and psychological analysis secondary to the story.
Silmfic: Tolkien-based fanfiction set within the time frame of the First and Second Ages, with most canon references coming from The Silmarillion.
Slash: A term from the 1960’s originally referring to fanfiction stories that paired together Kirk and Spock from Star Trek, as in “Kirk/Spock.” Slash within the Tolkien community indicates that the story is about a same-sex pairing, though the actual sexual content varies widely and includes male/male, female/female, and interspecies, such as man/hobbit.
WIP: Work In Progress. A story not yet ready for reading as deemed by the author.
The top 10 Tolkien fanfiction groups by number of members in early February, 2003 were:
|Name of group||Number of members||Genre focus|
|Legolas Aragorn Slash||511||Slash|
The five women-character focused and non-Lord of the Rings fanfiction groups were these:
|Name of group||Number of members||Genre focus|
|lotr girlslash||104||female slash|
|Aragorn And Arwen||45||pre-LotR setting|
This is the cover-letter email and survey I posted on February 3, 2003.
“Hello, my name is Kristi and I’m a Tolkien fan…
Jokes aside, I do love Tolkien, to the point of co-founding a smial of the Tolkien Society and sewing a costume for “my” character, Finduilas of dol Amroth. I frequent TORn and their chat room, Barliman’s. And now I am sitting in on a class on Tolkien being taught by the other co-founder and good friend of mine. Though I am not taking it for credit, I am writing a research paper. This is where you come in.
I only recently (in the past couple of months) discovered the seemingly bottomless pool of Tolkien fanfiction. I am amazed and intrigued! What I want to elaborate on and ask you about is this: Why are so many women compelled to write Tolkien fanfic since Tolkien’s work is so male-dominated, and why is it that the fanfic itself tends to focus on the male characters? I have a survey of questions for women writers of fanfic. If you are willing to take the time and fill it out and send it to me, I would be most grateful. I want to discover what it is about Tolkien’s work that inspires you to write your own stories, as well as why (on the whole) you write about the male characters instead of, say, filling in stories of Éowyn’s childhood. Please let your voices be heard- I want to write about you. I’ve only scratched the surface of your fanfic and I have been overwhelmed by the obvious devotion and time you have put into your stories. I hope to hear from you- and please feel free to pass this along to any women Tolkien fanfic writers you know, regardless of genre: I am hoping to include people who write in all of the major genres, from G-rated “missing piece” stories to explicit slash.
I have an email account set up to receive the questionnaires, or to answer any questions that you may have. It is firstname.lastname@example.org. I very much look forward to hearing from you!
aka. Thevina Finduilas
Women Tolkien Fanfiction Writers Survey
~ How long have you been writing Tolkien fanfic?
~ How many stories have you written/published?
~Have you asked yourself what it is about Tolkien’s works that have inspired you to write your own stories? If so, what is your inspiration?
~Do you write in one particular style or multiple styles? (slash, h/c, AU, etc.)
~ Do you write about one particular character, most of the time? If so, is s/he more closely based on the book character, the movie character/actor or a combination?
~ Would you say that your fanfic more closely resembles the books, movies or both?
~ Do you involve Tolkien’s (albeit few) women characters in your writings? If not, why not?
~ Do you feel that if there were more women characters in Tolkien’s works that you would write fanfic that involved them?
~ If you write AU fanfic, do you purposefully eliminate Tolkien’s women characters? If so, why?
~ Have you told your friends and family that you write Tolkien fanfic?
~What is your age?
~ Do you mind being quoted? If not, would you prefer to be quoted under a particular pseudonym (please list it) or a random number?
***No real names will be used in this paper***
~ If there is anything else you would care to include please write it!”
Below is only a small sampling of online Tolkien fanfiction sites:
I received a tremendous amount of unsolicited but appreciated statistical information from the chief programmer of Henneth Annûn, enough to write another essay. Of interest to this paper is that the Henneth Annûn Story Archive (HASA) is able to provide searches via drop-down select boxes on the front page of the website. She indicated that from mid-November to February 3rd (when she replied to my survey) they had collected a sample of 54,087 searches. Included within the top 25 characters searched on the site, four were women, and two, Éowyn and Arwen, were in the top ten. I asked her how long HASA had been online, and she replied “HASA went live to the public on July 2, 2002. When it launched, it was getting about 15 visitors per day, almost all site members. It is now getting 2350+ visitors per day.” (email correspondence, March 15 2003) It will be interesting to revisit this website in particular and the Tolkien fanfiction community in general in five year’s time and see how it has changed.
This is a work of fan fiction, written because the author has an abiding love for the works of J R R Tolkien. The characters, settings, places, and languages used in this work are the property of the Tolkien Estate, Tolkien Enterprises, and possibly New Line Cinema, except for certain original characters who belong to the author of the said work. The author will not receive any money or other remuneration for presenting the work on this archive site. The work is the intellectual property of the author, is available solely for the enjoyment of Henneth Annûn Story Archive readers, and may not be copied or redistributed by any means without the explicit written consent of the author.